Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Tuberculosis is spread through the air when people cough, speak or sneeze. The problem is that one-third of the world’s population is thought to be infected with TB. Being infected does not mean that you get tuberculosis. About 30 percent of the people who contact become infected and 10 percent of the infected people become tuberculosis patients, while the remaining 90 percent of the infected people stay healthy. More than 95% of deaths occurred in developing countries.
Tuberculosis treatment : 4 First line drugs
Action mechanism, Characteristics, side effects
Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide and Isoniazid inhibit the synthesis of cell wall. Mycobacteria has NAG-arabinogalactan and mycolic acid. Ethambutol inhibits the synthesis of NAG-arabinogalactan. Pyrazinamide inhibits FAS-1 and Isoniazid inhibits FAS-2. Synthetic mechanism of mycolic acid composed of FAS-1 and FAS-2. Rifampin combines with ‘DNA dependent RNA polymerase’ to inhibit translation. Side effect of Pyrazinamide, Isoniazid and Rifampin is ‘hepatotoxicity’. Particularly, Isoniazid inhibits cytochrome-P450 and hence acts as a source of free radicals. So we should beware Drug-Drug interaction. It is not difficult. 🙂
“Stopping TB requires a government program that functions every day of the year, and that’s hard in certain parts of the world. And partly it’s because of who tuberculosis affects: It tends to affect the poor and disenfranchised most” – Tom Frieden